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有机质在页岩沉积成岩过程及储层形成中的作用
梁超, 吴靖, 姜在兴, 操应长, 刘淑君, 逄淑伊1,2,3,4
1. 中国石油大学地球科学与技术学院, 山东青岛 266580;2. 海洋国家实验室海洋矿产资源评价与探测技术功能实验室, 山东青岛 266071;3. 中国石油化工股份有限公司石油勘探开发研究院, 北京 100083;4. 中国地质大学(北京)能源学院, 北京 100083
摘要:
通过岩心、显微薄片及电镜样品的观察,结合定量分析测试结果,对有机质在页岩形成、演化及储层发育中重要作用进行研究。研究表明:有机质利于碳酸钙的沉淀,主要由底栖黏结、浮游黏结及生物颗粒3种形式形成碳酸盐,形成的岩石类型包括骨架岩、黏结岩和颗粒灰岩;有机质利于铁质络合物的形成,有机质热演化形成微环境促进碳酸盐矿物的黄铁矿交代;在埋藏演化过程中,有机质演化产生有机酸,对不稳定矿物进行溶蚀,继而发生重结晶作用,影响方解石的晶体大小和形态;有机质直接或间接地产生大量有效的储集空间,有利于页岩孔隙网络的形成,继而影响页岩的储集物性;页岩油产量受总有机碳含量(TOC)影响,建议页岩油形成并具备工业可采能力的TOC下限值为2%,同时也需要富有机质页岩具有稳定的厚度,还应考虑页岩矿物组成及岩石类型、镜质体反射率Ro等因素。
关键词:  有机质  埋藏演化  储层评价  页岩油  湖相页岩
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5005.2017.06.001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41602142);国家科技重大专项(2016ZX05006-007,2016ZX05006-003);中国博士后基金项目(2015M582165,2017T100523);山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2016DB16)
Significances of organic matters on shale deposition, diagenesis process and reservoir formation
LIANG Chao, WU Jing, JIANG Zaixing, CAO Yingchang, LIU Shujun, PANG Shuyi1,2,3,4
1. School of Geosciences in China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China;2. Laboratory for Marine Mineral Resources, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;3. Exploration and Production Research Institute, SINOPEC, Beijing 100083, China;4. College of Energy, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
Based on well cores, microscopic sections, scanning electron microscope samples and the relative analysis data, the significances of organic matters on deposition process, diagenesis and shale reservoir were systematically studied. The study shows that organic matters are conducive to the precipitation of calcium carbonate, mainly in terms of benthic stickknot, planktonic bonding and biological particles to form carbonate. Organic matters can promote the formation of the organic-iron complex, and the micro environment formed during organic matters thermal evolution can promote metasomatism of carbonate minerals by pyrite. During the burial, organic matters produce organic acids, which may cause the dissolution and recrystallization of calcite, and further control the calcite crystal size and conformation. Organic matters can generate abundant storage pores directly or indirectly, which is very important for the formation of pore networks in the shale and for the reservoir physical properties. The analyses show that the shale oil production is closely related to the TOC content, which increases simultaneously with the TOC content. The study suggests that for the shale reservoir formation and industry capacity, the lower limit of TOC content is 2%, and an effective thickness of organic-rich shale needs to be reached. In addition, the mineral composition, lithofacies, burial depth, Ro also need to be considered.
Key words:  organic matters  burial evolution  reservoir evaluation  shale oil and gas  lacustrine shale
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